YLC Policy Bulletin: Federal Financial Aid

Congress passes legislation that will make it easier for students to get financial aid! Congress has passed legislation that will greatly simplify the financial aid application process by 2023. with specific benefits for youth with prior involvement in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. Changes include: Shortening and simplifying the Free Application for Federal […]

Financial Aid for Juvenile Justice System-Involved Youth

This resource is meant to help youth who are about to graduate from higher school and/or who are under the age of 26 with juvenile justice system involvement maximize the amount of financial aid they receive to attend college. The guide covers what financial aid is and how to get it, offers tips for troubleshooting […]

CA Assembly Bill 1354 – Fact Sheet

This fact sheet provides basic information about Assembly Bill 1354, signed into law in 2019 and effective on January 1, 2020. The AB 1354 fact sheet describes which youth are eligible for online college courses, what programs are available, and who is responsible for providing them. The fact sheet can help youth and parents understand the programs […]

CA Senate Bill 716 – Fact Sheet

This fact sheet provides basic information about Senate Bill 716, signed into law in 2019 and effective on January 1, 2020. The SB 716 fact sheet describes which youth are eligible for online college courses, what programs are available, and who is responsible for providing them. The fact sheet can help youth and parents understand the programs […]

Education Rights & Responsibilities Toolkit for Juvenile Justice System Involved Youth

This toolkit provides education-related information and resources regarding the rights of juvenile justice system involved youth and the responsibilities of system stakeholders. Stakeholders can use the toolkit to understand their obligations in meeting the education needs of youth with juvenile justice system involvement. Parents and advocates can use it to support youths’ education-related rights and […]

A Positive Youth Justice System

The National Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (NICJR) is designing a transformed juvenile justice system that is rooted in communities, that is based on restorative justice practices, and that invests in youth, families, and communities. This NICJR report lays out ten steps to transform the juvenile justice system to improve outcomes for youth and protect […]

Closing the Extracurriculars Gap: Prioritizing Extracurricular Activities as a Key Intervention for Children and Youth in Foster Care and Juvenile Justice

This Youth Law Center report describes the benefits of extracurricular participation for youth, families, and communities; highlights the legal and policy supports for extracurricular participation for system-involved youth; lists system barriers to extracurricular participation; explores ways to overcome those barriers; and makes recommendations to increase extracurricular participation for system-involved youth. The report notes that extracurriculars […]

A.M. v. Holmes Amicus Brief

Amicus brief filed with US Supreme Court in A.M. v. Holmes, challenging the arrest of a 13 year old New Mexico boy for “fake burping” and laughing in class (criminalizing normal behavior)

In Re Gault – Conference Flyer

Flyer for ABA Conference on “Fulfilling the Promise of Gault – Due Process and Effective advocacy for Youth in the 21st Century. YLC is co-sponsor of this along with ABA Commission on Youth at Risk, ABA Criminal Justice Section, National Juvenile Defender Center and National Center for Youth Law.

Locked Up and Alone

Article exploring solitary confinement in juvenile facilities against the backdrop of SB 124 (Leno), currently pending in the California Legislature.

Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Court – Boulders on the Road to Good Outcomes

Article by YLC staff attorney Sue Burrell focuses on the damage caused by collateral consequences of juvenile court proceedings – the predictable as well as unanticipated impacts on young people’s ability to move forward in their lives and offers nine suggested ways to reduce collateral consequences. The article appears as a chapter in the published […]

CA Supreme Court Opinion in R.V.

CA Supreme Court Decision in in re R.V. – decision reversed a lower court decision which had found a 16 year-old Orange County boy competent to stand trial. The case raised two issues of first impression, including the question of who has the burden of proof in showing incompetence, and also, what the standard of […]

AB 388: What Group Home Staff Need to Know

Fact Sheet on AB 388: What Group Home Staff Need to Know. AB 388, which takes effect January 1, 2015, is a new law specifically intended to reduce the frequency of law enforcement involvement and delinquency petitions arising from incidents at group homes.

AB 388: What Youth Advocates Need to Know

Fact Sheet on AB 388: What Youth Advocates Need to Know. AB 388, a new law which takes effect January 1, 2015, is specifically intended to reduce the frequency of law enforcement involvement and delinquency petitions arising from incidents at group homes.

AB 388: What Social Workers Need to Know

Fact sheet for social workers on AB 388: a new law taking effect January 1, 2015, designed to prevent unnecessary policy involvement in group homes and reduce the use of locked detention before trial for foster youth.

Op-Ed: Incarcerating Disturbed Youth Is a Flawed Response

YLC staff attorney Sue Burrell, wrote an op ed piece for the CT Mirror, Incarcerating Disturbed Youth is a Flawed Response (LINK to uploaded article), published September 22, 2014. The piece follows Connecticut’s decisions to lock a transgender teenager, first in an adult women’s facility in Connecticut, and then in a boys’ institution. The piece […]

Press Release

Press Release on DOJ Complaint Over Pepper Spray in San Diego Juvenile Halls

DOJ Complaint

Complaint to the Department of Justice over Pepper Spray and Mistreatment of Youth in San Diego Juvenile Halls.

Juvenile Justice Reform: Realigning Responsibilities

Realizing the state could not afford to comply with the Farrell consent decree, in 2007, policy-makers acted to reduce the number of youth offenders housed in state facilities by enacting realignment legislation which shifted responsibility to the counties for all but the most serious youth offenders. This major step had long been recommended by youth […]

Joint Informational Hearing on the California Youth Authority, May 16, 2000

In response to recent disclosures concerning the California Youth Authority, on May 16, 2000, the Senate and Assembly Public Safety Committees held a joint oversight hearing. The Committees heard eleven witnesses concluding with testimony from Robert Presley, Secretary of the Youth and Adult Correctional Agency and Jerry Harper, the newly appointed Director of the Youth […]

What Caregivers Need to Know about AB 12 for Probation Involved Youth: Getting & Staying Eligible – A Power Point Presentation

This power point covers planning issues caregivers need to consider before the youth’s 18th birthday including permanency options (guardianship, adoption, permanent planned living arrangements) and the impact of those options on extended supports under AB 12(extended foster care, Kin-GAP, AAP) and other benefits. Special issues relative caretakers face regarding placement orders and the impact of […]

What Caregivers Need to Know about AB 12 for Probation Involved Youth: Placements – Options, Limitations & Regulations – A Power Point Presentation

This power point covers the new foster family licensing regulations and placement options for youth 18 and older. It also covers the impact of SILPS (Supervised Independent Living Settings), Transitional Housing Programs, limitations on group home placements and other AB 12 placement provisions on youth and their kinship or foster family caregivers.

State Settles Gilliam Lawsuit

Rocky Mountain News article about the settlement in E. R. v. McDonnell, a lawsuit in which the Youth Law Center co-counseled.

Youth Prison System Sued Over Health Care

LA Times article about the filing of Morris v. Harper, a lawsuit against the California Youth Authority for providing substandard medical and mental health care.

Challenging Lenthy Post-Disposition Commitments to Juvenile Halls

The purpose of this memorandum is to address ways to challenge the imposition of lengthy or extended post-disposition confinement, such as 200 or 300 days, in juvenile halls and to provide a resource for attorneys and advocates who are representing juvenile clients in this situation in California.

Ricardo M. – Cases on Commitment to Juvenile Hall

Cases on commitment to juvenile hall in chronological order. Note that the statutes have changed over time – especially W & I § 777, but also the purpose clause (W & I § 202). Also, some focus on what can be done as a probation condition, and others focus on required 726 removal or 730 […]

George T. Amicus

Amicus where George T., the teenager- in this case, was incarcerated for several months and made a ward of the court after giving his “dark poetry” to girls at school who interpreted it as threatening. Amicus argues the requisite elements for “criminal threat” simply were not present in this case.

In re Sean W. Amicus

This is an amicus to a case that presents the question whether Senate Bill 459 (“S . B 459”) changed the law to give juvenile courts increased power to set maximum confinement time in cases involving Youth Authority commitments.

In re Greg F. Amicus

The question here is whether a juvenile court may dismiss a wardship petition in the interests of justice and commit a juvenile way to the Division of Juvenile Justice on the basis of a prior sustained petition, even though Welfare and Institutions Code section 733 prohibits commitment unless “the most recent offense alleged in any […]

Danny O. v. Bowman Judgment

Danny O. v. Bowman was a federal class action suit on behalf of all youth who are currently or in the future will be incarcerated at the State Youth Services Center in St. Anthony, Idaho. The suit challenged the defendants’ use of solitary confinement and restraints; education, medical, psychiatric and rehabilitative treatment and services and […]

Difficult to Place: Summary of Findings

This is a shorter version of the original report that presents the findings of Youth Law Center’s research into placement issues for juvenile justice youth with mental health needs in 10 California counties. The focus of the research was youth with mental health needs who have been ordered by the juvenile court to be placed […]

Shifting Values in Juvenile Justice – Daily Journal (December 21, 2010)

This is an op ed piece summing up juvenile justice reform in the first part of the 21st century. It takes the position that we are moving away from the punitive attitudes of the 1980’s and 1990’s and toward a vision for juvenile justice that is more in keepiing with what we now know about […]

JJDP Powerpoint Presentation

The Juvenile Justice Data Project was started in October 2004 and ended in 2007, as a joint effort by the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (formerly the Youth and Adult Correctional Agency) and the Youth Law Center. The Juvenile Justice Data Project (JJDP)(formerly the California Juvenile Justice Accountability Project) is an outgrowth of the […]

Juvenile Justice Data Project Phase I Summary Report

The Juvenile Justice Data Project (JJDP) released the results of the first ever statewide survey of California’s juvenile justice system, providing a snapshot of 100,000 youth under the jurisdiction of both county probation departments and the state Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). Data was collected on youth in county probation departments, community intervention programs, county […]

Juvenile Justice Data Project, Phase 1 County by County Appendix

The Juvenile Justice Data Project (JJDP) released the results of the first ever statewide survey of California’s juvenile justice system, providing a snapshot of 100,000 youth under the jurisdiction of both county probation departments and the state Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). Data was collected on youth in county probation departments, community intervention programs, county […]

Juvenile Justice Data Project Phase 1: Survey of Interventions and Programs

The Juvenile Justice Data Project (JJDP) released the results of the first ever statewide survey of California’s juvenile justice system, providing a snapshot of 100,000 youth under the jurisdiction of both county probation departments and the state Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). Data was collected on youth in county probation departments, community intervention programs, county […]

Sacramento Valley Mirror’s Sex, Drugs and Violence in Tehama Juvenile Hall

YLC Attorney Sue Burrell was interviewed for this four part Sacramento Valley Mirror series that exposed alleged sexual misconduct by Tehama County Juvenile Hall staff with detained juveniles. Sue provided background information about applicable laws and regulations. The four part series ran August 19 to August 29, 2009.

Nick O. v. Terhune Stipulation and Order

Nick O. v. Terhune was a federal class action challenging the failure of the defendants to provide appropriate special education and related services to youth confined at the California Youth Authority. Judgment was entered on May 7, 1990, in which the defendants agreed to ensure that all class members would be provided with a free […]

Willie M. v. Hunt Judgment and Order

Willie M. v. Hunt was a federal civil rights lawsuit that challenged the state’s failure to provide adequate community-based treatment facilities for children labeled ‘violent’ or ‘aggressive.’ Prior to the lawsuit, class members were often warehoused in large mental health institutions and juvenile training schools and deprived of any meaningful treatment. As a result of […]

Willie M. v. Hunt Complaint

Willie M. v. Hunt was a federal civil rights lawsuit that challenged the state’s failure to provide adequate community-based treatment facilities for children labeled ‘violent’ or ‘aggressive.’ Prior to the lawsuit, class members were often warehoused in large mental health institutions and juvenile training schools and deprived of any meaningful treatment. As a result of […]

Tommy P.v. Board of County Commissioners Memorandum and Judgment

Tommy P. v. Board of County Commissioners was a state court action to insure that children in detention facilities would have a right to adequate education services during long terms of confinement. After trial, the Superior Court held that children have both federal and state constitutional rights to education during confinement, and ordered Spokane County […]

Tommy P. v. Board of Commissioners First Amended Complaint

Tommy P. v. Board of County Commissioners was a state court action to insure that children in detention facilities would have a right to adequate education services during long terms of confinement. After trial, the Superior Court held that children have both federal and state constitutional rights to education during confinement, and ordered Spokane County […]

Morris v. Harper (Wilber v. Cate) Peremptory Writ of Mandamus

This lawsuit was filed in May 2000, challenging the failure of the California Youth Authority (now the Division of Juvenile Justice) to license its inpatient medical and mental health services as required by State law. At the time the lawsuit was filed, the Youth Authority was more than four years beyond the date the licensing […]

Morris v. Harper (Wilber v. Cate) Statement of Decision

This lawsuit was filed in May 2000, challenging the failure of the California Youth Authority (now the Division of Juvenile Justice) to license its inpatient medical and mental health services as required by State law. At the time the lawsuit was filed, the Youth Authority was more than four years beyond the date the licensing […]

Morris v. Harper (Wilber v. Cate) Petition for Writ

This lawsuit was filed in May 2000, challenging the failure of the California Youth Authority (now the Division of Juvenile Justice) to license its inpatient medical and mental health services as required by State law. At the time the lawsuit was filed, the Youth Authority was more than four years beyond the date the licensing […]

Steven L. v. Kern County Settlement Agreement

Steven L. v. Kern County challenged the policies at the Kern County Juvenile Hall and the Kern County Youth Facility regarding access to counsel, mail censorship, and the use of isolation and other discipline. The Youth Law Center entered into a court-approved settlement in May 1991, which resolved all the issues in the case, established […]

Steven L. v. Kern County First Amended Complaint

Steven L. v. Kern County challenged the policies at the Kern County Juvenile Hall and the Kern County Youth Facility regarding access to counsel, mail censorship, and the use of isolation and other discipline. The Youth Law Center entered into a court-approved settlement in May 1991, which resolved all the issues in the case, established […]

Shaw v. San Francisco Settlement Agreement

Shaw v. San Francisco challenged various illegal policies, practices and conditions of confinement at the San Francisco Juvenile Hall (Youth Guidance Center), including an antiquated facility in need of substantial repair and maintenance, fire safety, inadequate staffing and training, disciplinary and grievance procedures, and the failure to provide clean clothes, adequate general or special educational […]

Shaw v. San Francisco Complaint

Shaw v. San Francisco challenged various illegal policies, practices and conditions of confinement at the San Francisco Juvenile Hall (Youth Guidance Center), including an antiquated facility in need of substantial repair and maintenance, fire safety, inadequate staffing and training, disciplinary and grievance procedures, and the failure to provide clean clothes, adequate general or special educational […]

Robert K. v. Bell Consent Order

Robert K. v. Bell was a federal class action brought by nine children who were transferred from the South Carolina Department of Youth Services to the South Carolina Department of Mental Health following attempted suicides at the state training school. Upon transfer, each child was subjected to prolonged periods of solitary confinement. Several of the […]

S.H. v. Reed Stipulation, Injunction and Order re Use of Force

S.H. v. Reed is a federal civil rights class action on behalf of all juveniles in the custody or under the supervision of the Ohio Department of Youth Services (DYS). Confined youth experienced a wide range of abuses including unnecessary use of force by staff; arbitrary and excessive use of discipline, isolation and seclusion; deficient […]

S.H. v. Reed Temporary Restraining Order

S.H. v. Reed is a federal civil rights class action on behalf of all juveniles in the custody or under the supervision of the Ohio Department of Youth Services (DYS). Confined youth experienced a wide range of abuses including unnecessary use of force by staff; arbitrary and excessive use of discipline, isolation and seclusion; deficient […]

S.H. v. Reed Stipulation for Injunctive Relief

S.H. v. Reed is a federal civil rights class action on behalf of all juveniles in the custody or under the supervision of the Ohio Department of Youth Services (DYS). Confined youth experienced a wide range of abuses including unnecessary use of force by staff; arbitrary and excessive use of discipline, isolation and seclusion; deficient […]

S.H. v. Reed Second Amended Complaint

S.H. v. Reed is a federal civil rights class action on behalf of all juveniles in the custody or under the supervision of the Ohio Department of Youth Services (DYS). Confined youth experienced a wide range of abuses including unnecessary use of force by staff; arbitrary and excessive use of discipline, isolation and seclusion; deficient […]

L.H. v. Brown Stipulated Order for Permanent Injunctive Relief

L.H. v. Brown is a federal class action lawsuit filed in September 2006 in the Eastern District of California challenging systematic constitutional violations of youth rights in California Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) parole revocation proceedings. (Case No. S-06-CV-2042 (E.D. Cal., originally filed as L.H. v. Schwarzenegger). YLC has worked with lead counsel from Rosen, […]

L.H. v. Brown Order

L.H. v. Brown is a federal class action lawsuit filed in September 2006 in the Eastern District of California challenging systematic constitutional violations of youth rights in California Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) parole revocation proceedings. (Case No. S-06-CV-2042 (E.D. Cal., originally filed as L.H. v. Schwarzenegger). YLC has worked with lead counsel from Rosen, […]

L.H. v. Brown Complaint

L.H. v. Brown is a federal class action lawsuit filed in September 2006 in the Eastern District of California challenging systematic constitutional violations of youth rights in California Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) parole revocation proceedings. (Case No. S-06-CV-2042 (E.D. Cal., originally filed as L.H. v. Schwarzenegger). YLC has worked with lead counsel from Rosen, […]

Nick O. v. Terhune Complaint

Nick O. v. Terhune was a federal class action challenging the failure of the defendants to provide appropriate special education and related services to youth confined at the California Youth Authority. Judgment was entered on May 7, 1990, in which the defendants agreed to ensure that all class members would be provided with a free […]

Johnnie K. v. Crist Stipulation and Order

Johnnie K. v. Crist was a civil rights action brought by juveniles confined in the New Mexico Boys’ School, located in Springer, New Mexico. The lawsuit challenged the mail censorship procedures followed at the school which allowed staff to read and censor mail sent to or from any boy confined at the facility, for any […]

Johnnie K. v. Crist Complaint

Johnnie K. v. Crist was a civil rights action brought by juveniles confined in the New Mexico Boys’ School, located in Springer, New Mexico. The lawsuit challenged the mail censorship procedures followed at the school which allowed staff to read and censor mail sent to or from any boy confined at the facility, for any […]

Jane G. v. Solano County Settlement Agreement and Order

Jane G. v. Solano County was filed on behalf of a 17-year-old girl who was placed at Solano County Juvenile Hall while awaiting disposition of misdemeanor charges. The lawsuit challenged a variety of practices at the Juvenile Hall, including using isolation as punishment; forcing children to remain in their cells for days at a time […]

Jane G. v. Solano County Complaint

Jane G. v. Solano County was filed on behalf of a 17-year-old girl who was placed at Solano County Juvenile Hall while awaiting disposition of misdemeanor charges. The lawsuit challenged a variety of practices at the Juvenile Hall, including using isolation as punishment; forcing children to remain in their cells for days at a time […]

Hollingsworth v. Orange County Statement of Decision and Judgment

Hollingsworth v. Orange County was a conditions of confinement case filed in state court. The issues in this case were mail, telephone calls, visitation, access to legal materials, personal property, overcrowding, exercise and recreation, imposition of discipline, and grievance procedures, using soft-tie restraints (stripping children to their underwear and tying them to the four corners […]

Hollingsworth v. Orange County Third Amended Complaint

Hollingsworth v. Orange County was a conditions of confinement case filed in state court. The issues in this case were mail, telephone calls, visitation, access to legal materials, personal property, overcrowding, exercise and recreation, imposition of discipline, and grievance procedures, using soft-tie restraints (stripping children to their underwear and tying them to the four corners […]

Gary H. v. Hegstrom Final Decree and Judgement

Gary H. v. Hegstrom challenged the conditions of confinement and adequacy of treatment programs for juveniles at the MacLaren School for Boys, the maximum security institution for delinquents in Oregon. In December, 1984, U.S. District Court Judge James Burns ruled that isolation practices at MacLaren were unconstitutional. He found that an excessive number of juveniles […]

Gary H. v. Hegstrom Second Amended Complaint

Gary H. v. Hegstrom challenged the conditions of confinement and adequacy of treatment programs for juveniles at the MacLaren School for Boys, the maximum security institution for delinquents in Oregon. In December, 1984, U.S. District Court Judge James Burns ruled that isolation practices at MacLaren were unconstitutional. He found that an excessive number of juveniles […]

G.C. v. Coler Settlement Agreement

G.C. v. Coler was a federal, class action lawsuit brought on behalf of children confined at the Broward County Regional Juvenile Detention Center for inadequate and inappropriate conditions of confinement. Children there were subjected to overcrowding, inappropriate placement, unsanitary and dangerous physical conditions, lack of security, lack of adequate staff, abusive punishment including isolation and […]

G.C. v. Coler Second Amended Complaint

G.C. v. Coler was a federal, class action lawsuit brought on behalf of children confined at the Broward County Regional Juvenile Detention Center for inadequate and inappropriate conditions of confinement. Children there were subjected to overcrowding, inappropriate placement, unsanitary and dangerous physical conditions, lack of security, lack of adequate staff, abusive punishment including isolation and […]

E.R. v. McDonnell Settlement Agreement and Order

E.R. v. McDonnell, was filed in December 1995, on behalf of two children confined in the Phillip B. Gilliam Youth Services Center against officials in the Colorado Department of Human Services, the Division of Youth Services, and the Denver Public School District. The complaint alleged unconstitutional overcrowding; problems with safety, health and sanitation; deficiencies in […]

E.R. v. McDonnell First Amended Complaint

E.R. v. McDonnell, was filed in December 1995, on behalf of two children confined in the Phillip B. Gilliam Youth Services Center against officials in the Colorado Department of Human Services, the Division of Youth Services, and the Denver Public School District. The complaint alleged unconstitutional overcrowding; problems with safety, health and sanitation; deficiencies in […]

Doe v. Younger Settlement Agreement

Doe v. Younger challenged the conditions of confinement for juveniles at the Kenton County Detention Center as well as the illegal confinement of juveniles in sight and sound of adult offenders and the illegal detention of status offenders. The JJDPA claims were later dropped from the litigation when Kentucky withdrew from the Act. A tentative […]

Doe v. Younger Amended Complaint

Doe v. Younger challenged the conditions of confinement for juveniles at the Kenton County Detention Center as well as the illegal confinement of juveniles in sight and sound of adult offenders and the illegal detention of status offenders. The JJDPA claims were later dropped from the litigation when Kentucky withdrew from the Act. A tentative […]

Doe v. Foti Consent Decree

Doe v. Foti was a civil rights class action challenging conditions of confinement for juveniles in the Conchetta Facility, Orleans Parish Prison, in New Orleans, and the policies and practices of defendants of confining juveniles in that Detention Center. Specific allegations included an inadequate educational program consisting of at best five hours of school per […]

Doe v. Foti Complaint

Doe v. Foti was a civil rights class action challenging conditions of confinement for juveniles in the Conchetta Facility, Orleans Parish Prison, in New Orleans, and the policies and practices of defendants of confining juveniles in that Detention Center. Specific allegations included an inadequate educational program consisting of at best five hours of school per […]

Danny O. v. Bowman Complaint

Danny O. v. Bowman was a federal class action suit on behalf of all youth who are currently or in the future will be incarcerated at the State Youth Services Center in St. Anthony, Idaho. The suit challenged the defendants’ use of solitary confinement and restraints; education, medical, psychiatric and rehabilitative treatment and services and […]

D.J.R. v. Christean Consent Decree

D.J.R. v. Christean was a federal civil rights class action which challenged the use of excessive and unnecessary ‘preventive’ pretrial detention of children in the Salt Lake County Detention Center. The Detention Center’s records revealed that less than five percent of the 2,200 children detained during 1982 were charged with serious crimes against persons, and […]

Clarence M. v. Yakima Parital Consent Judgment

Clarence M. v. Yakima was a civil rights action for declaratory judgment, permanent injunction, damages and other relief, challenging the conditions of confinement at the Yakima County Detention Facility. Plaintiffs alleged that they were subjected to arbitrary discipline, isolation in a small, dark and unventilated room for up to 24 hours for punishment, showers within […]

Clarence M. v. Yakima Amended Complaint

Clarence M. v. Yakima was a civil rights action for declaratory judgment, permanent injunction, damages and other relief, challenging the conditions of confinement at the Yakima County Detention Facility. Plaintiffs alleged that they were subjected to arbitrary discipline, isolation in a small, dark and unventilated room for up to 24 hours for punishment, showers within […]

Christina A. v. Bloomberg Settlement Agreement

Christina A. v. Bloomberg challenged the conditions of confinement at the South Dakota State Training School in Plankinton. The Youth Law Center filed this civil rights class action lawsuit in February 2000, to challenge staff placing youth, including girls stripped to their underwear or completely naked, in four-point restraints spread eagled on cement slabs; locking […]

Christina A. v. Bloomberg Complaint

Christina A. v. Bloomberg challenged the conditions of confinement at the South Dakota State Training School in Plankinton. The Youth Law Center filed this civil rights class action lawsuit in February 2000, to challenge staff placing youth, including girls stripped to their underwear or completely naked, in four-point restraints spread eagled on cement slabs; locking […]

Bobby M. v. Martinez Consent Decreee

Bobby M. v. Martinez, a federal class action, was brought on behalf of the 1,000 children confined at the Florida state training schools at Marianna, Ocala, and Okeechobee. The action challenged policies, practices, and conditions in the institutions—including ‘hogtying’ children with handcuffs and ankle cuffs, serious overcrowding, unsanitary living conditions, inadequate supervision and training of […]

Bobby M. v. Martinez Second Amended Complaint

Bobby M. v. Martinez, a federal class action, was brought on behalf of the 1,000 children confined at the Florida state training schools at Marianna, Ocala, and Okeechobee. The action challenged policies, practices, and conditions in the institutions—including ‘hogtying’ children with handcuffs and ankle cuffs, serious overcrowding, unsanitary living conditions, inadequate supervision and training of […]

ACLU-NM v. New Mexico CYFD 2010 Complaint

Since 2002, YLC staff has worked with the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (ACLU-NM) on ACLU of New Mexico v. New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department to improve living conditions and rehabilitation services for young people in state juvenile justice facilities. YLC serves as co-counsel in litigation that resulted in settlement agreements […]

ACLU-NM v. New Mexico CYFD Final Agreement

Since 2002, YLC staff has worked with the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (ACLU-NM) on ACLU of New Mexico v. New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department to improve living conditions and rehabilitation services for young people in state juvenile justice facilities. YLC serves as co-counsel in litigation that resulted in settlement agreements […]

ACLU-NM v. New Mexico CYFD Settlement Press Release 2009

Since 2002, YLC staff has worked with the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (ACLU-NM) on ACLU of New Mexico v. New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department to improve living conditions and rehabilitation services for young people in state juvenile justice facilities. YLC serves as co-counsel in litigation that resulted in settlement agreements […]

ACLU-NM v. New Mexico CYFD Appendix to 2006 Agreement

Since 2002, YLC staff has worked with the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (ACLU-NM) on ACLU of New Mexico v. New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department to improve living conditions and rehabilitation services for young people in state juvenile justice facilities. YLC serves as co-counsel in litigation that resulted in settlement agreements […]

ACLU-NM v. New Mexico CYFD 2006 Agreement

Since 2002, YLC staff has worked with the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (ACLU-NM) on ACLU of New Mexico v. New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department to improve living conditions and rehabilitation services for young people in state juvenile justice facilities. YLC serves as co-counsel in litigation that resulted in settlement agreements […]

Anthony C. v. Pima County Stipulation and Agreement

Anthony C. v. Pima County was filed in 1982 to challenge a number of practices at the Pima County Detention Center in Tucson. These included use of leather restraints, inadequate treatment programs, mail censorship, restrictions on visitation, overcrowding, and failure to provide 24-hour detention hearings. After protracted negotiations, local officials entered into a consent decree […]

Working Together: Building Local Monitoring Capacity for Juvenile Detention Centers

This report describes a project undertaken when the California Legislature defunded state inspections of juvenile defender centers as part of its 1992 budget negotiations. The legislation substituted a “self inspection” process that called for local jurisdictions to monitor themselves. The Annie E. Casey Foundation provided funding to YLC to provide training on how to do […]

Anthony C. v. Pima County Complaint

Anthony C. v. Pima County was filed in 1982 to challenge a number of practices at the Pima County Detention Center in Tucson. These included use of leather restraints, inadequate treatment programs, mail censorship, restrictions on visitation, overcrowding, and failure to provide 24-hour detention hearings. After protracted negotiations, local officials entered into a consent decree […]

Aguilar v. Mitchell Complaint

Aguilar v. Mitchell was a federal court action involving conditions of confinement of children in the detention center in Walla Walla. At the trial, experts in the areas of child psychiatry, adolescent medicine, institutional program planning, environmental engineering, and architecture testified concerning the harmful effects of confining children for 24 hours a day in dirty, […]

ACLU NM v. NMCYFD 2007 Complaint

Since 2002, YLC staff has worked with the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (ACLU-NM) on ACLU of New Mexico v. New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department to improve living conditions and rehabilitation services for young people in state juvenile justice facilities. YLC serves as co-counsel in litigation that resulted in settlement agreements […]

Safford v. Redding Amicus

The Youth Law Center participated in this case as amicus curiae in a brief on behalf of Savana filed by the Philadelphia-based Juvenile Law Center, law professors and juvenile advocacy groups around the country. This was the first juvenile school search case considered by the High Court in 24 years. The United State Supreme Court […]

DJJ’s Implementation of AB 1628 Transferring Post-Release Supervision to County Probation

This memo summarizes a presentation at a public meeting of the Juvenile Parole Board (JPB) on January 31, 2011, at which Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) representatives explained how they will implement AB 1628, which as of January 19, 2011, transfers responsibility for post-release supervision from DJJ Parole to county probation departments. Procedures may be […]

Youth Law Center Analysis of DJJ Parole Realignment to the Counties

On October 19, 2010, the Public Safety budget trailer bill, A.B. 1628, was signed into law by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, effective immediately upon this date of enactment. This new law included language that amends the Welfare & Institutions Code (WIC) and reorganizes and realigns juvenile parole from the California Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) to […]

Energy Efficient Strategies for Defenders to Improve Conditions for Clents in Custody

This is a short discussion of strategies defenders may use to address individual client situations as well as systemic issues. While people often think that conditions advocacy necessarily implicates litigation, the truth is that many problems can be resolved quickly and effectively through the straightforward mechanisms outlined below. These strategies are designed to have maximum […]

Incompetent Youth in California Juvenile Justice

This article offers a vehicle for discussion of California juvenile incompetence to stand trial.  It begins with an overview of the California juvenile justice system and a profile of youth in juvenile justice, briefly reviews the incompetency laws applying to adults, and then describes existing legal provisions to address juvenile incompetence.  It also describes the […]

Difficult to Place: Youth with Mental Health Needs in California Juvenile Justice

This report presents the findings of Youth Law Center’s research into placement issues for juvenile justice youth with mental health needs in 10 California counties.  The focus of the research was youth with mental health needs who have been ordered by the juvenile court to be placed in a non-secure placement, but who remain incarcerated […]

The Human Impact of Crowding in Juvenile Detention

This article explores the human impact of crowding as actually observed in detention centers around the country through the eyes of juvenile advocates. It paints a dismal portrait of a system which is meant to humanely care for youth and shows how crowding and its effects are exacerbated by inappropriate detention decisions, systemic inefficiencies, and […]

Gang Evidence: Issues for Criminal Defense

This extensive article covers issues such as gangs in a societal context, the difficulty in defining gang activity, and issues for criminal defense which include discovery of official records of gang affiliation, search issues, gang attire, evidentiary objections at trial, gang evidence as hearsay, allegations that may arise from specific Anti-Gang Legislation, and sentencing of […]